The National Endowment for the Humanities’ Faculty Humanities Workshop for school teachers took place at Washington University in Saint Louis in 2008-2009. Entitled “The Impact of Jazz on American Life,” this Workshop was a fresh reconfiguration of the successful NEH institutes that the Center for the Humanities at Washington University administered on the same subject in the summers of 2005 and 2007. It aimed to introduce participants to the ways that interdisciplinary approaches to popular music, specifically jazz, can enrich a variety of humanities subjects. The primary goal of the Workshop was to help teachers understand how, through the study of the social, cultural, technical, and aesthetic history of a major American musical genre, jazz, they can re-think aspects of teaching American history, literature, art, and music while broadening students’ understanding of the political, social, and commercial impact that an artistic movement or style can have.
The Workshop focussed on following major topics arising from various disciplinary perspectives on jazz: jazz and race, jazz and gender, jazz as dance music, jazz as art music, jazz and children’s literature, jazz and Latin music, jazz and the American popular song, jazz and poetry, jazz and Rock and Roll, and jazz and animation. The lead instructor for the Workshop was be Gerald Early, professor of English and African American Studies at Washington University and one of the leading American authorities on jazz. He was joined by Patrick Burke, assistant professor of Music at Washington University and Steve Missey, English teacher at St. Louis University High School as well as several guest lecturers.
The Workshop format included a one week-long summer session and eight Saturday sessions throughout the academic year 2008-2009, from September until May. The workshop also included having the teachers attend performances of nationally known jazz musicians at a local jazz club, Jazz at the Bistro, one of our institutional partners. We also had a formal institutional partnership with both the St. Louis public schools and the St. Louis Catholic schools, with a representative from each serving on our supervising staff.
The participants of the Workshop, all of whom were local St. Louis teachers, were given the lesson plans developed by the participants of the 2005 Summer Institute and the material assessment reports written by the participants of the 2007 Summer Institute so that they would have some basis on which to draw up their own plans and classroom approaches. All participants were required to have completed plans for a class or a series of classes related to the subject that would be taught in the 2009-2010 academic year and to gather again in the spring of 2010 on the campus of Washington University for a one-day symposium to discuss whether the implementation was successful.
Themes and Contexts: An Outline of the Institute
Text all participants will be assigned to read before the start of the Workshop:
The History of Jazz by Ted Gioia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997)
One week summer session: Monday, July 7 through July 11, 2008
Monday Morning Lecture: Jazz as the Story of American Culture, July 7 (Gerald Early)
Participants will be given an overview of the entire workshop, outlining the major themes and goals. This lecture begins by covering these questions:
What is jazz and how did it start?
Is jazz really a form of music or just a technique to apply to music?
What aspects of jazz made it a particularly American art form?
How did music itself change in the 20th century and how did public consumption of it change?
How did jazz develop as a commercially successful music?
What is jazz’s relationship to earlier American forms of music such as minstrel music and marching band music?
Is American music political or can it be political? Is taste or artistic preference political? In what ways did jazz become political or begin to reflect the politics of the society that created it?
How did jazz expand from being a form of music to a modernist art movement?
The lecture will then consider these questions:
Can a serious understanding of jazz and the way it shaped or re-shaped American popular taste and American musical taste substantially alter our perception of American culture?
In what ways can aspects of the impact of the development of jazz be profitably incorporated into existing humanities curricula?
How can we interest students in learning about older forms of popular music that seem corny and antithetical to their taste and impenetrable to their understanding?
What we will try to accomplish in this Humanities Workshop:
New ways of using popular music in teaching the humanities
New ways of understanding American social history
New ways of understanding the arts in America
Monday Afternoon Session: How to listen to Jazz (Patrick Burke)
This three-hour session will be a general introduction to the musicological features of jazz including an explanation of melody, rhythm, and harmony, syncopation, the break, improvisation, the twelve-bar blues, and the thirty-two bar popular song, the difference between New Orleans style and Swing music and the difference between Swing and Bebop.
Music in American Life by Jacques Barzun (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1956)
Noise: The Political Economy of Music by Jacques Attali (translated by Brain Massumi), (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985)
A New History of Jazz by Alyn Shipton (New York: Continuum, 2001)
Recorded Music in American Life: The Phonograph and Popular Memory, 1890-1945 by William Howland Kenney, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999)
Understanding Jazz: Ways to Listen by Tom Piazza (New York: Random House, 2005)
The NPR Curious Listener’s Guide to Jazz by Loren Schoenberg (New York: Perigee Books, 2002)
Tuesday Morning Lecture: Into the Hot, Part I—Jazz and the New Negro Movement, July 8 (Gerald Early)
The lecture will consider how the development of jazz affected the rise of African American political consciousness and African American cultural institutions in the first half of the 20th century with a particularly close look at the connection between the emergence of jazz and the rise of the New Negro Movement, virtually at the same time, around 1915, with the beginning of the Great Black Migration. Was does it mean for something to be “black music”? Was jazz truly a black music? If so, how did black people respond to this music? Why were many black intellectuals and critics indifferent to or hostile to jazz? How did the black press view jazz? What were the aims of the New Negro Movement and how were those aims affected by jazz? Why were so many of the black middle class opposed to this music or were they? Was the black jazz musician a “New Negro for a new century,” to borrow a phrase from Booker T. Washington? How does the development of jazz fit into the story of the emergence of African American urban culture or the story of the emergence of African American cultural nationalism? What is the relationship between jazz and African American religion? Did jazz create a greater sense of identity and cohesion for urban blacks or did it threaten black consensus? Was jazz political for blacks? What was the significance for blacks that men tended to dominate jazz? How did the transformation of jazz from dance music to art music affect the black audience for jazz?
Tuesday Afternoon Seminar: Four jazz movies—Bird, Round Midnight, A Man Called Adam, and Sweet Love Bitter (Gerald Early, Steve Missey)
These four dramatic films, two from the 1960s and two from the 1980s, all focus on the black male jazz musician as the hero or anti-hero. Each workshop participant will be asked to view at least two of these films before the session and Early and Missey will lead a discussion about the films and what they say, both culturally and politically, about the figure of the creative black male in American society. The participants will also consider how these films might be used in a class.
The Jazz Revolution: Twenties America and the Meaning of Jazz by Kathy J. Ogren (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992)
Blues People: Negro Music in White America by LeRoi Jones, (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1963)
When Harlem Was in Vogue by David Levering Lewis (New York: Oxford Press, 1989)
The Big Sea: An Autobiography by Langston Hughes (New York: Hill and Wang, 1963), originally published in 1940
Jammin’ at the Margins: Jazz and the American Cinema by Krin Gabbard (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996)
Jazz on Film: The Complete Story of the Musicians and Music Onscreen by Scott Yanow (San Francisco: Backbeat Press, 2004)
Keep Cool: The Black Activists Who Built the Jazz Age by Ted Vincent (London: Pluto Press, 1995)
The Music of Black Americans: A History by Eileen Southern, (New York: W. W. Norton, 1997)
The Power of Black Music: Interpreting Its History from Africa to the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)
Wednesday Morning Lecture: Into the Hot, Part II—Jazz and the White American, July 9 (Gerald Early)
This lecture will consider these questions: What was the white American’s relationship to jazz before World War II? If jazz was a black music, why did whites seem to dominate it both as players, as promoters, and as critics? How did jazz affect white American urban culture? Which whites were opposed to jazz? Which were likely to support it? Was there a consensus among whites about what constituted jazz or what jazz was supposed to be? Why were Jews particularly attracted to jazz? Was jazz received differently among whites in the south than among whites in the north? How was jazz covered in the mainstream white press? What impact did white gangsters have on jazz? What impact did white politicians have on jazz? How did jazz affect white American taste and how white Americans consumed music? How did jazz affect how white Americans saw black Americans?
Wednesday Afternoon Seminar: Four jazz movies—The Birth of the Blues, Orchestra Wives, Young Man With a Horn, and Blues in the Night (Gerald Early and Steve Missey)
These four dramatic films, three of the four from the 1940s and one from 1950, focus on the white male jazz musician as heroic artist. Of the numerous Hollywood films made about the jazz musician, these four were chosen because they were made within a nine-year span, during a time when jazz’s popularity had reached its height (during World War II) and was just beginning to wane (by the end of the 1940s). Each Workshop participant will be asked to watch two of the films before the session and Early and Missey will lead a discussion about the films and what they say, both culturally and politically, about the figure of the creative white male in American society. The participants will also consider how these films might be used in a class.
Jazz and the White Americans: The Acceptance of a New Art Form by Neil Leonard (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962)
Jammin’ at the Margins: Jazz and the American Cinema by Krin Gabbard
The Jazz Revolution: Twenties America and the Meaning of Jazz by Kathy J. Ogren
Thursday Morning Lecture: Jazz and Modern Dance, July 10 (Cecil Slaughter, dance instructor) This presentation will give an overview of how jazz affected modern dance, particularly certain key black choreographers like Alvin Ailey, Katherine Dunham, and Talley Beatty. The presentation will combine lecture, film clips, and actual live performances by Slaughter’s students.
Thursday Afternoon Seminar: The Transformation of Social Dancing in the United States (Cecil Slaughter, dance instructor)
This presentation will give an overview of how jazz changed social dancing in the United States, with particular focus on the rise of such African American dances as the Black Bottom, the Charleston, and the Lindy Hop.
Black Dance: From 1619 to Today by Lynne Fauley Emery, (Princeton: Princeton Book Company Publishers, 1988)
Jookin’: The Rise of Social Dance Formations in African-American Culture by Katrina Hazzard-Gordon (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992)
Frankie Manning: Ambassador of the Lindy Hop by Frank Manning and Cynthia Millman, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007)
Swinging at the Savoy: The Memoir of a Jazz Dancer by Norma Miller and Evette Jensen, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996)
Kaiso!: Writings by and about Katherine Dunham by Edited Veve A. Clark and Sara E. Johnson, (Madison: University of Wisconsin, 2006)
Modern Dance, Negro Dance: Race in Motion by Susan Manning (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006)
Jazz Dance: The Story of American Vernacular Dance by Marshall and Jean Stearns (New York: Macmillan, 1968)
Steppin’ on the Blues” The Visible Rhythms of African American Dance by Jacqui Malone (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996)
Friday Morning Lecture: The Birth of the Cool—Jazz Becomes Art Music, July 11 (Gerald Early) This presentation will look at jazz after World War II when swing’s short reign as a consensus popular dance music ended and the 1950s ushered in cool music and so-called progressive jazz. How was being cool different from being hot (which was what jazz was called before World War II)? What was the aesthetic of cool? What were the racial dynamics of cool jazz music? How did jazz of the 1950s reflect the Cold War politics of the era? What was the impact of Playboy magazine on jazz? What was the impact of the civil rights movement on jazz? What was the relationship of the Beats to jazz? What was the impact of the long-playing album on jazz? Was jazz still a youth music? Was there an anti-cool jazz and anti-progressive jazz movement among jazz musicians? Was there any attempt made to revitalize jazz as popular dance music? If so, why didn’t it succeed?
Friday Afternoon Seminar: Meet the Jazz Artist at Jazz at the Bistro
Participants will have the opportunity to watch a rehearsal and to interview a nationally known jazz artist at the Jazz at the Bistro nightclub. They will all attend the artist’s performance at the club on Friday night.
Birth of the Cool: Beat, Bebop, and the American Avant-Garde by Lewis MacAdams (New York: The Free Press, 2001
West Coast Jazz: Modern Jazz in California, 1945-1960 by Ted Gioia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992)
Swing to Bop: An Oral History of the Transition in Jazz in the 1940s by Ira Gitler (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985)
The Rise of a Jazz Art World by Paul Lopes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002) Blows Like a Horn: Beat Writing, Jazz, Style, and Markets in the Transformation of U.S. Culture by Preston Whaley, Jr. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004)
“On bird, Bird-Watching, and Jazz” in Ralph Ellison, Shadow and Act, (New York: Vintage Books, 1972)
Second session: Saturday, September 27, 2008: Jazz and Latin Music (Patrick Burke, Gerald Early, and Steve Missey)
Morning Lecture (Patrick Burke): A presentation on the influence of Mexican, Brazilian, and Afro-Cuban music on jazz, including a consideration of bandleader Xavier Cugat, songwriter Antonio Carlos Jobim, and musicians such as Juan Tizo, Chano Pozo, Candido, Willie Bobo, Airto Moreira, Bola Sete, Eddie Palmieri, and Arturo Sandoval. The lecture will look back at some of the earliest jazz musicians like Jelly Roll Morton and composer W. C. Handy who were influenced by the Latin American tango and other dances to Dizzy Gillespie and his big band in the 1940s to the emergence of Bossa Nova in the 1960s with Stan Getz and, finally, the Latin jazz-rock of Carlos Santana in the 1970s and 1980s.
Afternoon Seminar (Patrick Burke, Gerald Early, and Steve Missey): Discussion of how participants can implement the emergence of Latin Jazz into their curricula within the larger context of the relationship between the United States, the Caribbean, and Latin America.
Chapter 5, “The 1940s: the watershed,” The Latin Tinge: The Impact of Latin American Music on the United States by John Storm Roberts, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998): 100-126.
Afro-Cuban Jazz: Third Ear—The Essential Listening Companion by Scott Yanow, (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2000).
Bossa Nova: The Story of the Brazilian Music That Seduced the World by Ruy Castro (Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2003).
Latin Jazz: The First of the Fusions, 1880s to Today by John Storm Roberts, (New York: Schirmer Books, 1999).
Friday, September 26, 2008: Attend the performance of Cedar Walton Trio at the Jazz at the Bistro (8:30-10 p.m.) (You can take one guest with you)
Third session: Saturday, October 25, 2008: Jazz and Children’s Literature (Gerald Early and Steve Missey)
Morning Lecture (Gerald Early): An overview of the books and recordings made for children that deal with jazz, from picture books about Louis Armstrong to the middle school novels by Christopher Paul Curtis and James Lincoln Collier that deal with young boys’ encounters with jazz. The lecture will include a consideration of why these books have been published in recent years, the difficulties inherent in writing about complex music for children, and if the books can kindle an interest in children in jazz. Jazz is, by and larger, not a children’s music, although it has been, in the past, attractive to adolescents. Mostly, throughout its history, jazz has been a considered an adult music. (In large measure because it originated in places like nightclubs, dance halls, taverns, and brothels, not in schools or churches, more child-friendly environments.) The lecture will also consider a comparison between some children’s books that deal with jazz, and children’s books that have been written about classical music and others that have been written about hip hop or rock and roll.
Afternoon seminar (Gerald Early and Steve Missey): Taking advantage of the library of the Center for the Humanities extensive collection of children’s books and recordings for children that deal with jazz, teachers will be asked to read ahead of time several children’s books about jazz (assigned titles are The Jazz Kid by James Lincoln Collier, Harlem Summer by Walter Dean Myers, and Bud, Not Buddy by Christopher Paul Curtis. Picture books to be assigned) and discuss which books can be useful in their teaching and how they could be employed in a larger lesson about music or about American society of a certain period.
Required Reading (specific pages to be assigned):
Growing Up With Jazz: Twenty-Four musicians Talk About Their Lives and Careers by W. Royal Stokes (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005)
Friday, October 24, 2008: Attend the performance of Swiss Movement Revisited at the Jazz at the Bistro (8:30-10 p.m.) (You can take one guest with you)
Fourth session: Saturday, December 6, 2008: Jazz and Animation (Gerald Early and Steve Missey) Morning Lecture (Gerald Early): This lecture will offer an examination of the use of jazz in a wide variety of cartoons including the Fleischer Brothers’ Betty Boop features, Walter Lantz’s “cartunes” of the 1940s, Warner Brothers’ cartoons from the 1930s to the 1950s, a few cartoons by Harvey Features, and some early episodes of The Flintstones. The lecture will explore why so many animators were taken with jazz and why Hollywood was comfortable with featuring jazz in cartoons. Some cartoons even featured characters based on actual jazz musicians, the most popular being Fats Waller, Louis Armstrong, and Cab Calloway. Several cartoons will be shown in class.
Afternoon Seminar (Steve Missey and Gerald Early): Participants will discuss how such animation can be useful in their teaching and how some of these cartoons could be employed in a larger lesson about music, American cinema, cinema for children, or about American society at the time the cartoons were made.
Required Reading: (specific pages and chapters to be assigned)
Jammin’ at the Margins: Jazz and the American Cinema by Krin Gabbard
Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age by Michael Barrier (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003)
Friday, December 5, 2008: Attend the performance of Nnenna Freelon at Jazz at the Bistro (8:30-10 p.m.) (You can take one guest with you)
Fifth session: Saturday, January 2009: Jazz and The American Popular Song (Philip Furia) Morning Lecture: The Great American Song Book, the popular songs composed for Broadway shows and Hollywood films during the ‘20s, 30s, and 40s by the Gerhswins, Irving Berlin, Harold Arlen, Rodgers and Hart, Harry Warren, Cole Porter, Vernon Duke, Burton Lane, and other Tin Pan Alley composers became not only the consensus popular music of the United States before World War II but a huge part of the repertoire for jazz and remains so. This lecture will examine the popular song, its structure, its lyrics, and what made it popular.
Afternoon Seminar (Gerald Early and Steve Missey): A discussion about why jazz musicians have been so attracted to the Great American Songbook, why there was a period of rebellion against it that generally failed, and the problems this attraction might pose for jazz today in its attempt to attract new audiences. Participants will consider how the discussion of the repertoire of a particular style of music, the formation of a repertoire and the problems with a repertoire as a style of music becomes established can be used in a classroom.
The Poets of Tin Pan Alley: A History of America’s Great Lyricists by Philip Furia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), one chapter to be announced
American Popular Song: The Great Innovators, 1900-1950 by Alex Wilder (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), one chapter to be announced
They’re Playing Our Song by Max Wilk (New York: Zoetrope, 1986)
America’s Songs: The Stories Behind the Songs of Broadway, Hollywood, and Tin Pan Alley by Philip Furia and Michael Lasser (New York: Routledge, 2006)
Sixth session: Saturday, February 2009: Jazz and Poetry (Gerald Early)
Morning Lecture (Gerald Early): This lecture examines the direct and indirect impact jazz has had on American poetry, its rhythm, its imagery, its sense of being spontaneous, even its subject matter. The session will look at poetry by Langston Hughes, Michael Harper, Amiri Baraka, Yusef Komunyakaa, Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, and others. The lecture will also examine how certain jazz musicians and singers have tried, in stunningly diverse ways, to incorporate poetry into their performances including Bob Dorough, David Frishberg, Patricia Barber, Charles Mingus, Sun Ra, and others.
Afternoon Seminar (Gerald Early and Steve Missey): Discussion with the participants dealing with how to incorporate jazz poetry in the classroom, including a consideration of performance and rap poetry.
Jazz Poetry Anthology by Sascha Feinstein and Yusef Komunyakaa (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991), one chapter to be announced
The Second Set: The Jazz Poetry Anthology, Volume Two by Sascha Feinstein and Yusef Komunyakaa (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996), one chapter to be announced
Jazz Poetry: From the 1920s to the Present by Sascha Feinstein (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997)
Moment’s Notice: Jazz in Poetry and Prose Edited by Art Lange and Nathaniel Mackey (Minneapolis: Coffee House Press, 1993)
B flat, bebop, scat: jazz short stories and poems Edited by Chris Parker (London: Quartet Books, 1986)
Seventh session: Saturday, March 2009: Jazz and Gender (Sherri Tucker)
Morning Lecture (Sherri Tucker): An examination of gender in jazz including a look at all-girl bands of the 1930s and 1940s, how instruments became masculinized or feminized, and the role of women in male jazz bands.
Afternoon Seminar (Gerald Early and Steve Missey): A discussion about current women jazz players with some consideration of the role of prominent women singers in jazz. The major consideration will be on how the role of gender in music-making can be incorporated into the curriculum.
Swing Shift: “All Girl” Bands of the 1940s by Sherrie Tucker (Durham: Duke University Press, 2001), two chapters to be announced
Stormy Weather: The Music and Lives of a Century of Jazzwomen by Linda Dahl (New York: Limelight Editions, 1989)
Madame Jazz: Contemporary Women Instrumentalists by Leslie Gourse (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995)
Eighth session: Saturday, April, 2009: Jazz and Rock and Roll (Gerald Early)
Morning Lecture: An exploration of how jazz came to be seen very differently with the rise of rock and roll in the 1950s: on the one hand, becoming more of an intellectual, older adult music, and, on the other, being seen as the progenitor, the founder of rock and roll. Generally, jazz musicians hated rock and roll in much the same way established classical and conventional dance band musicians of the early 20th century hated jazz. Clips will be shown from such 1950s films as Mister Rock and Roll, Blackboard Jungle, Don’t Knock the Rock, Rock Around the Clock, Bop Girl Goes Calypso, and Jailhouse Rock. The lecture will also discuss how, in the 1960s, jazz tried to accommodate the rock sound by adopting rock rhythms and electric instruments and why this attempt did not succeed and jazz reverted to its more traditional acoustic sound. The central figure in the transformation of jazz into a form of rock music was Miles Davis and the lecture will examine some of his music of the early 1970s.
Afternoon Seminar: A discussion of how jazz’s struggles with rock and roll and subsequent youth-oriented popular music can used in the classroom as a way that shows an art form trying to adjust to a new setting and new taste and how frequently the art form will fail to make the transition or as a way of showing how jazz still influences, at least indirectly, some of the popular music of today, because it has managed to survive and still attracts young performers.
Jazz Rock: A History by Stuart Nicholson (New York: Schirmer Books, 1998), two chapters to be announced
Jammin’ at the Margins: Jazz and the American Cinema by Krin Gabbard
Wrap-up session: Saturday, May 2009: Did Jazz Fail or What We Can Learn from Jazz About the Rise and Fall of an Art Form (Gerald Early)
Morning Lecture: Did jazz fail as an art movement since it lost so much of its audience? Do art movements generally fail in sustaining themselves and, if so, why? Was jazz intended to be a mass music? Or was jazz always meant to be an elite music and so did not fail but at last found its proper level? Did jazz succeed because the basic elements that made it attractive to a large number of people during its heyday remain the elements that make popular music attractive to people, namely, striking rhythms, new harmonies, a sense of rebellion, the pursuit of spontaneity, and the idea of freedom from old conventions? Will there ever be a mass resurrection of jazz as we know it? Or will jazz, basically a fusion music, fuse with some other form of popular music and become something different? This lecture will explore these questions in bringing the Workshop to a close.
Afternoon Seminar: Lunch and discussion as each participant will speak briefly about how he or she has used the content of the Workshop in class in the 2008-2009 academic year or how they intend to use it in the upcoming year.
Is Jazz Dead? (Or Has It Moved to a New Address) by Stuart Nicholson (New York: Routledge, 2005), one chapter to be announced
The institute wishes to bring together school teachers from various disciplines, especially English, History, Social Studies, Art, Film Studies, Philosophy, and Music. But the institute will consider applications from any school teacher regardless of discipline. It will also consider applications from qualified non-teachers such as school librarians, media specialists, and museum staff.
How to Apply
The application form is available on-line at the website for the Center for the Humanities at Washington University (http://cenhum.artsci.wustl.edu). You can also request to receive the application in the mail by writing to:
Gerald Early, Director
The Center for the Humanities
Washington University in Saint Louis
Campus Box 1071
One Brookings Drive
Saint Louis, MO 63130
Or you can make an application request by calling Barbara Liebmann or Jian Leng at 314-935-5576 between the hours of 8:30 am and 5:00 pm Monday through Friday.
The deadline for completed applications is May 12, 2008. Successful applicants will be notified no later than May23, 2008.
Participants will receive a stipend of $100.00 per full day. Stipends should be commensurate with the time commitment expected of the participants. Stipends will be paid three times during the running of the institute.
The application package will include:
**One-Page Cover letter: should explain how the content and experience of being in the institute will relate to your professional assignments and career goals
**One letter of recommendation
Participants will receive in-serve credit for participating in the institute.
Washington University in St. Louis credits can be awarded to participants who seek it by paying lowest processing fee.
We hope you are able to attend this workshop to learn how a music went from being hot to being cool, how we Americans learned to talk jive and be hip, how an art form grabbed our hearts and minds and, for a time, refused to let go, and how that art form still speaks to us as Americans, even through it has ceased to be our national popular music. It is a story about success and failure, rise and fall, strengths and weaknesses, limitations and possibilities. It is, more fundamentally, a story about national pride and about heroic resiliency: it is the story of American jazz.
Gerald Early, Director
The Center for the Humanities
Merle Kling Professor of Modern Letters
Washington University in St. Louis
St. Louis, MO 63130-4899
Phone: (314) 935-5576
© 2011 all rights reserved. Contact The Center at firstname.lastname@example.org or (314) 935-5576.